Deploy Elasticsearch Hot-Warm-Cold Cluster in Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (Amazon EKS)


KubeDB is the Kubernetes Native Database Management Solution which simplifies and automates routine database tasks such as Provisioning, Monitoring, Upgrading, Patching, Scaling, Volume Expansion, Backup, Recovery, Failure detection, and Repair for various popular databases on private and public clouds. The databases supported by KubeDB include MongoDB, Elasticsearch, MySQL, MariaDB, Redis, PostgreSQL, FerretDB, Percona XtraDB, and Memcached. Additionally, KubeDB also supports ProxySQL, PgBouncer, Pgpool, ZooKeeper and the streaming platform Kafka, RabbitMQ. You can find the guides to all the supported databases in KubeDB . KubeDB provides support not only for the official Elasticsearch by Elastic and OpenSearch by AWS, but also other open source distributions like SearchGuard and OpenDistro . KubeDB provides all of these distribution’s support under the Elasticsearch CR of KubeDB. In this tutorial we will deploy Elasticsearch Hot-Warm-Cold Cluster in Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (Amazon EKS). We will cover the following steps:

  1. Install KubeDB
  2. Deploy Elasticsearch Hot-Warm-Cold Cluster
  3. Verify Node Role
  4. Read/Write Sample Data

Elasticsearch Hot-Warm-Cold Cluster

Hot-warm-cold architectures are common for time series data such as logging or metrics and it also has various use cases too. For example, assume Elasticsearch is being used to aggregate log files from multiple systems. Logs from today are actively being indexed and this week’s logs are the most heavily searched (hot). Last week’s logs may be searched but not as much as the current week’s logs (warm). Last month’s logs may or may not be searched often, but are good to keep around just in case (cold).

Get Cluster ID

We need the cluster ID to get the KubeDB License. To get cluster ID, we can run the following command:

$ kubectl get ns kube-system -o jsonpath='{.metadata.uid}'

Get License

Go to Appscode License Server to get the license.txt file. For this tutorial we will use KubeDB.

License Server

Install KubeDB

We will use helm to install KubeDB. Please install helm , if it is not already installed. Now, let’s install KubeDB.

$ helm search repo appscode/kubedb
NAME                              	CHART VERSION	APP VERSION	DESCRIPTION                                       
appscode/kubedb                   	v2024.4.27   	v2024.4.27 	KubeDB by AppsCode - Production ready databases...
appscode/kubedb-autoscaler        	v0.30.0      	v0.30.0    	KubeDB Autoscaler by AppsCode - Autoscale KubeD...
appscode/kubedb-catalog           	v2024.4.27   	v2024.4.27 	KubeDB Catalog by AppsCode - Catalog for databa...
appscode/kubedb-community         	v0.24.2      	v0.24.2    	KubeDB Community by AppsCode - Community featur...
appscode/kubedb-crd-manager       	v0.0.9       	v0.0.9     	KubeDB CRD Manager by AppsCode                    
appscode/kubedb-crds              	v2024.4.27   	v2024.4.27 	KubeDB Custom Resource Definitions                
appscode/kubedb-dashboard         	v0.21.0      	v0.21.0    	KubeDB Dashboard by AppsCode                      
appscode/kubedb-enterprise        	v0.11.2      	v0.11.2    	KubeDB Enterprise by AppsCode - Enterprise feat...
appscode/kubedb-grafana-dashboards	v2024.4.27   	v2024.4.27 	A Helm chart for kubedb-grafana-dashboards by A...
appscode/kubedb-kubestash-catalog 	v2024.4.27   	v2024.4.27 	KubeStash Catalog by AppsCode - Catalog of Kube...
appscode/kubedb-metrics           	v2024.4.27   	v2024.4.27 	KubeDB State Metrics                              
appscode/kubedb-one               	v2023.12.28  	v2023.12.28	KubeDB and Stash by AppsCode - Production ready...
appscode/kubedb-ops-manager       	v0.32.0      	v0.32.1    	KubeDB Ops Manager by AppsCode - Enterprise fea...
appscode/kubedb-opscenter         	v2024.4.27   	v2024.4.27 	KubeDB Opscenter by AppsCode                      
appscode/kubedb-provider-aws      	v2024.4.27   	v0.7.0     	A Helm chart for KubeDB AWS Provider for Crossp...
appscode/kubedb-provider-azure    	v2024.4.27   	v0.7.0     	A Helm chart for KubeDB Azure Provider for Cros...
appscode/kubedb-provider-gcp      	v2024.4.27   	v0.7.0     	A Helm chart for KubeDB GCP Provider for Crossp...
appscode/kubedb-provisioner       	v0.45.0      	v0.45.1    	KubeDB Provisioner by AppsCode - Community feat...
appscode/kubedb-schema-manager    	v0.21.0      	v0.21.0    	KubeDB Schema Manager by AppsCode                 
appscode/kubedb-ui                	v2024.5.17   	0.6.8      	A Helm chart for Kubernetes                       
appscode/kubedb-ui-server         	v2021.12.21  	v2021.12.21	A Helm chart for kubedb-ui-server by AppsCode     
appscode/kubedb-webhook-server    	v0.21.0      	v0.21.1    	KubeDB Webhook Server by AppsCode   

$ helm install kubedb oci:// \
  --version v2024.4.27 \
  --namespace kubedb --create-namespace \
  --set-file global.license=/path/to/the/license.txt \
  --wait --burst-limit=10000 --debug

Let’s verify the installation:

$ kubectl get pods --all-namespaces -l ""
NAMESPACE   NAME                                            READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
kubedb      kubedb-kubedb-autoscaler-865fc9dd84-dsd69       1/1     Running   0          6m24s
kubedb      kubedb-kubedb-ops-manager-69dfbdf7bb-fcjsk      1/1     Running   0          6m24s
kubedb      kubedb-kubedb-provisioner-bb5d74cfc-hsftd       1/1     Running   0          6m24s
kubedb      kubedb-kubedb-webhook-server-74b48848db-mbrzc   1/1     Running   0          6m24s
kubedb      kubedb-petset-operator-5d94b4ddb8-94278         1/1     Running   0          6m24s
kubedb      kubedb-petset-webhook-server-65bd5b547b-2vpf9   2/2     Running   0          6m24s
kubedb      kubedb-sidekick-5d9947bd9-tb6rj                 1/1     Running   0          6m24s

We can list the CRD Groups that have been registered by the operator by running the following command:

$ kubectl get crd -l
NAME                                               CREATED AT                   2024-05-27T11:04:13Z                        2024-05-27T11:04:13Z                   2024-05-27T11:02:40Z    2024-05-27T11:04:10Z   2024-05-27T11:04:10Z                         2024-05-27T11:04:10Z            2024-05-27T11:04:10Z           2024-05-27T11:02:40Z                    2024-05-27T11:02:40Z                2024-05-27T11:02:40Z            2024-05-27T11:04:13Z          2024-05-27T11:02:40Z                    2024-05-27T11:04:13Z                                  2024-05-27T11:04:13Z                   2024-05-27T11:02:40Z               2024-05-27T11:04:17Z          2024-05-27T11:04:16Z                 2024-05-27T11:04:17Z                  2024-05-27T11:04:16Z                                2024-05-27T11:04:16Z                 2024-05-27T11:02:40Z               2024-05-27T11:02:40Z               2024-05-27T11:04:20Z          2024-05-27T11:04:20Z                 2024-05-27T11:04:20Z                  2024-05-27T11:04:20Z                                2024-05-27T11:04:20Z                 2024-05-27T11:02:41Z             2024-05-27T11:02:41Z                 2024-05-27T11:04:24Z            2024-05-27T11:04:24Z                   2024-05-27T11:04:24Z                    2024-05-27T11:04:24Z                                  2024-05-27T11:04:24Z                   2024-05-27T11:02:41Z           2024-05-27T11:02:41Z               2024-05-27T11:02:41Z                  2024-05-27T11:02:41Z              2024-05-27T11:04:27Z         2024-05-27T11:04:27Z                2024-05-27T11:04:27Z                              2024-05-27T11:04:27Z                 2024-05-27T11:04:27Z                2024-05-27T11:02:41Z                2024-05-27T11:02:41Z                     2024-05-27T11:04:27Z                2024-05-27T11:02:41Z            2024-05-27T11:04:31Z                                 2024-05-27T11:04:31Z                    2024-05-27T11:04:31Z    2024-05-27T11:04:31Z            2024-05-27T11:04:31Z                          2024-05-27T11:04:31Z                   2024-05-27T11:02:41Z             2024-05-27T11:02:41Z                    2024-05-27T11:02:41Z                    2024-05-27T11:04:27Z               2024-05-27T11:02:41Z

Deploy Elasticsearch Hot-Warm-Cold Cluster

Now, We are going to use the KubeDB-provided Custom Resource object Elasticsearch for deployment. First, let’s create a Namespace in which we will deploy the cluster.

$ kubectl create namespace demo
namespace/demo created

Here is the yaml of the Elasticsearch we are going to use:

kind: Elasticsearch
  name: es-hwc-cluster
  namespace: demo
  enableSSL: true
  version: xpack-8.11.1
        replicas: 2
              storage: 1Gi
          storageClassName: "gp2"
        replicas: 2
              storage: 1Gi
          storageClassName: "gp2"
        replicas: 1
              storage: 1Gi
          storageClassName: "gp2"
        replicas: 3
              storage: 1Gi
          storageClassName: "gp2"
        replicas: 2
              storage: 1Gi
          storageClassName: "gp2"
        replicas: 2
              storage: 1Gi
          storageClassName: "gp2"

Let’s save this yaml configuration into es-hwc-cluster.yaml Then apply the above Elasticsearch yaml,

$ kubectl apply -f es-hwc-cluster.yaml created

In this yaml,

  • spec.version field specifies the version of Elasticsearch. Here, we are using Elasticsearch version xpack-8.11.1 which is used to provision Elasticsearch-8.11.1 with xpack auth plugin. You can list the KubeDB supported versions of Elasticsearch CR with x-pack auth-plugin by running $ kubectl get elasticsearchversions | grep xpack command. If you want to get other distributions, use grep command accordingly.
  • specifies PVC spec that will be dynamically allocated to store data for this database. This storage spec will be passed to the StatefulSet created by KubeDB operator to run database pods. You can specify any StorageClass available in your cluster with appropriate resource requests. You can get all the available storageclass in your cluster by running $ kubectl get storageclass command.
  • spec.enableSSL - specifies whether the HTTP layer is secured with certificates or not.
  • spec.storageType - specifies the type of storage that will be used for Elasticsearch database. It can be Durable or Ephemeral. The default value of this field is Durable. If Ephemeral is used then KubeDB will create the Elasticsearch database using EmptyDir volume. In this case, you don’t have to specify field. This is useful for testing purposes.
  • spec.topology - specifies the node-specific properties for the Elasticsearch cluster.
    • topology.master - specifies the properties of master nodes.
      • master.replicas - specifies the number of master nodes.
      • - specifies the master node storage information that passed to the StatefulSet.
    • - specifies the properties of data nodes.
      • data.replicas - specifies the number of data nodes.
      • - specifies the data node storage information that passed to the StatefulSet.
    • topology.ingest - specifies the properties of ingest nodes.
      • ingest.replicas - specifies the number of ingest nodes.
      • - specifies the ingest node storage information that passed to the StatefulSet.

You can see the detailed yaml specifications in the Kubernetes Elasticsearch documentation.

Once these are handled correctly and the Elasticsearch object is deployed, you will see that the following resources are created:

$ kubectl get all -n demo
NAME                                READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
pod/es-hwc-cluster-data-cold-0      1/1     Running   0          5m17s
pod/es-hwc-cluster-data-cold-1      1/1     Running   0          5m17s
pod/es-hwc-cluster-data-content-0   1/1     Running   0          5m17s
pod/es-hwc-cluster-data-hot-0       1/1     Running   0          5m17s
pod/es-hwc-cluster-data-hot-1       1/1     Running   0          5m17s
pod/es-hwc-cluster-data-hot-2       1/1     Running   0          4m23s
pod/es-hwc-cluster-data-warm-0      1/1     Running   0          5m17s
pod/es-hwc-cluster-data-warm-1      1/1     Running   0          5m17s
pod/es-hwc-cluster-ingest-0         1/1     Running   0          5m17s
pod/es-hwc-cluster-ingest-1         1/1     Running   0          5m17s
pod/es-hwc-cluster-master-0         1/1     Running   0          5m17s
pod/es-hwc-cluster-master-1         1/1     Running   0          5m17s

NAME                            TYPE        CLUSTER-IP    EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)    AGE
service/es-hwc-cluster          ClusterIP   <none>        9200/TCP   5m17s
service/es-hwc-cluster-master   ClusterIP   None          <none>        9300/TCP   5m17s
service/es-hwc-cluster-pods     ClusterIP   None          <none>        9200/TCP   5m17s

NAME                                           READY   AGE
statefulset.apps/es-hwc-cluster-data-cold      2/2     5m17s
statefulset.apps/es-hwc-cluster-data-content   1/1     5m17s
statefulset.apps/es-hwc-cluster-data-hot       3/3     5m17s
statefulset.apps/es-hwc-cluster-data-warm      2/2     5m17s
statefulset.apps/es-hwc-cluster-ingest         2/2     5m17s
statefulset.apps/es-hwc-cluster-master         2/2     5m17s

Let’s check if the database is ready to use,

$ kubectl get elasticsearch -n demo es-hwc-cluster
NAME             VERSION        STATUS     AGE
es-hwc-cluster   xpack-8.11.1   Ready      5m38s

We have successfully deployed Elasticsearch in Amazon EKS. Now we can exec into the container to use the database.

Connect with Elasticsearch Database

We will use port forwarding to connect with our Elasticsearch database. Then we will use curl to send HTTP requests to check cluster health to verify that our Elasticsearch database is working well.

Port-forward the Service

KubeDB will create few Services to connect with the database. Let’s check the Services by following command,

$ kubectl get service -n demo
NAME                    TYPE        CLUSTER-IP    EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)    AGE
es-hwc-cluster          ClusterIP   <none>        9200/TCP   6m11s
es-hwc-cluster-master   ClusterIP   None          <none>        9300/TCP   6m11s
es-hwc-cluster-pods     ClusterIP   None          <none>        9200/TCP   6m11s

Here, we are going to use es-hwc-cluster Service to connect with the database. Now, let’s port-forward the es-hwc-cluster Service to the port 9200 to local machine:

$ kubectl port-forward -n demo svc/es-hwc-cluster 9200
Forwarding from -> 9200
Forwarding from [::1]:9200 -> 9200

Now, our Elasticsearch cluster is accessible at localhost:9200.

Export the Credentials

KubeDB also create some Secrets for the database. Let’s check which Secrets have been created by KubeDB for our es-hwc-cluster.

$ kubectl get secret -n demo | grep es-hwc-cluster
es-hwc-cluster-apm-system-cred        2      6m34s
es-hwc-cluster-beats-system-cred      2      6m34s
es-hwc-cluster-ca-cert                       2      6m34s
es-hwc-cluster-client-cert                   3      6m34s
es-hwc-cluster-config                        Opaque                     1      6m34s
es-hwc-cluster-elastic-cred           2      6m34s
es-hwc-cluster-http-cert                     3      6m34s
es-hwc-cluster-kibana-system-cred     2      6m34s
es-hwc-cluster-logstash-system-cred   2      6m34s
es-hwc-cluster-remote-monitoring-user-cred   2      6m34s
es-hwc-cluster-transport-cert                3      6m34s

Now, we can connect to the database with es-hwc-cluster-elastic-cred which contains the admin level credentials to connect with the database.

Accessing Database Through CLI

To access the database through CLI, we have to get the credentials to access. Let’s export the credentials as environment variable to our current shell :

$ kubectl get secret -n demo es-hwc-cluster-elastic-cred -o jsonpath='{.data.username}' | base64 -d
$ kubectl get secret -n demo es-hwc-cluster-elastic-cred -o jsonpath='{.data.password}' | base64 -d

Now, let’s check the health of our Elasticsearch cluster

# curl -XGET -k -u 'username:password' https://localhost:9200/_cluster/health?pretty"
$ curl -XGET -k -u 'elastic:oUjB5s.9)PF4kEB2' "https://localhost:9200/_cluster/health?pretty"
  "cluster_name" : "es-hwc-cluster",
  "status" : "green",
  "timed_out" : false,
  "number_of_nodes" : 12,
  "number_of_data_nodes" : 8,
  "active_primary_shards" : 9,
  "active_shards" : 10,
  "relocating_shards" : 0,
  "initializing_shards" : 0,
  "unassigned_shards" : 0,
  "delayed_unassigned_shards" : 0,
  "number_of_pending_tasks" : 0,
  "number_of_in_flight_fetch" : 0,
  "task_max_waiting_in_queue_millis" : 0,
  "active_shards_percent_as_number" : 100.0

Verify Node Role

As we have assigned a dedicated role to each type of node, let’s verify them by following command,

$ curl -XGET -k -u 'elastic:oUjB5s.9)PF4kEB2' "https://localhost:9200/_cat/nodes?v"
ip        heap.percent ram.percent cpu load_1m load_5m load_15m node.role master name          41          90   3    0.22    0.31     0.34 s         -      es-hwc-cluster-data-content-0           70          76   3    0.00    0.03     0.07 h         -      es-hwc-cluster-data-hot-0           45          87   4    0.09    0.20     0.26 i         -      es-hwc-cluster-ingest-0          33          75   3    0.22    0.31     0.34 w         -      es-hwc-cluster-data-warm-0           65          76   3    0.09    0.20     0.26 h         -      es-hwc-cluster-data-hot-1          46          75   3    0.09    0.20     0.26 c         -      es-hwc-cluster-data-cold-1           56          77   3    0.00    0.03     0.07 m         *      es-hwc-cluster-master-0           52          74   3    0.02    0.06     0.11 c         -      es-hwc-cluster-data-cold-0           34          75   3    0.22    0.31     0.34 m         -      es-hwc-cluster-master-1           21          74   3    0.00    0.03     0.07 w         -      es-hwc-cluster-data-warm-1          23          85   3    0.02    0.06     0.11 i         -      es-hwc-cluster-ingest-1           72          75   3    0.02    0.06     0.11 h         -      es-hwc-cluster-data-hot-2
  • node.role field specifies the dedicated role that we have assigned for each type of node. Where h refers to the hot node, w refers to the warm node, c refers to the cold node, i refers to the ingest node, m refers to the master node, and s refers to the content node.
  • master field specifies the active master node. Here, we can see a * in the es-hwc-cluster-master-0 which shows that it is the active master node now.

Insert Sample Data

In this section, we are going to create few indexes in Elasticsearch. You can use curl for post some sample data into Elasticsearch. Use the -k flag to disable attempts to verify self-signed certificates for testing purposes.:

$ curl -XPOST -k --user 'elastic:oUjB5s.9)PF4kEB2' "https://localhost:9200/music/_doc?pretty" -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d'
                      "Artist": "Avicii",
                      "Song": "The Nights"
  "_index" : "music",
  "_id" : "9jgwI4EBIEhBS7DgJcLv",
  "_version" : 1,
  "result" : "created",
  "_shards" : {
    "total" : 2,
    "successful" : 1,
    "failed" : 0
  "_seq_no" : 0,
  "_primary_term" : 1

Now, let’s verify that the index has been created successfully.

$ curl -XGET -k --user 'elastic:oUjB5s.9)PF4kEB2' "https://localhost:9200/_cat/indices?v&s=index&pretty"
health status index         uuid                   pri rep docs.count docs.deleted store.size dataset.size
green  open   kubedb-system 1mk1HsiGTKiqay6By84SGQ   1   1          1            6    500.4kb        500.4kb      500.4kb
green  open   music         CxQqbq9NTmmTesIsLqJR5Q   1   1          1            0      5.4kb          5.4kb        5.4kb

Also, let’s verify the data in the indexes:

$ curl -XGET -k --user 'elastic:oUjB5s.9)PF4kEB2' "https://localhost:9200/music/_search?pretty"
  "took" : 11,
  "timed_out" : false,
  "_shards" : {
    "total" : 1,
    "successful" : 1,
    "skipped" : 0,
    "failed" : 0
  "hits" : {
    "total" : {
      "value" : 1,
      "relation" : "eq"
    "max_score" : 1.0,
    "hits" : [
        "_index" : "music",
        "_id" : "9jgwI4EBIEhBS7DgJcLv",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "Artist" : "Avicii",
          "Song" : "The Nights"

We’ve successfully inserted some sample data to our Elasticsearch database. More information about Deploy & Manage Production-Grade Elasticsearch Database on Kubernetes can be found in Elasticsearch Kubernetes

We have made a tutorial on Backup and Restore Elasticsearch using KubeStash. You can have a look into the video below:


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